Blood Sugar Level and it’s Regulation
The human body desires blood glucose (blood sugar level) maintained in a really narrow range. Blood glucose regulation includes maintaining blood sugar levels at constant levels in the face of vibrant glucose consumption and energy use by the body. Glucose is key in the energy consumption of human beings.
Typically, this target range is 60-100 mg/dL for an adult although individuals can be asymptomatic at far more varied levels. In order to maintain this range, there are two primary hormonal agents that manage blood sugar levels: insulin and glucagon.
Insulin and Glucagon
Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by islet cells within the pancreas.
Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas. The stimulus for insulin secretion is High blood glucose. Although there is constantly a low level of insulin produced by the pancreas, the quantity secreted into the blood increases as the blood sugar rises. Likewise, as blood sugar falls, the amount of insulin produced by the pancreatic islets decreases.
Glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in a similar manner as insulin … except in the opposite instructions. If blood sugar is high, then no glucagon is secreted. When blood sugar goes Low, however, (such as between meals, and throughout exercise) a growing amount of glucagon is secreted. Like insulin, glucagon has a result on numerous cells of the body, but most especially on the liver.
Working of Insulin
Insulin offers glucose access to the cells. It attaches to the insulin receptors on cells throughout the body, instructing the cells to open and grant entry to glucose. Low levels of insulin constantly distribute throughout the body. A spike in insulin signals to the liver that blood sugar is also high. The liver takes in glucose then alters it into a storage molecule called glycogen. When blood sugar levels drop, glucagon instructs the liver to transform the glycogen back to glucose, causing blood sugar levels to return to normal.
Insulin also supports recovery after an injury by providing amino acids to the muscles. Amino acids help build the protein that exists in muscle tissue, so when insulin levels are low, muscles may not recover effectively.
Working of Glucagon
The liver stores glucose to power the cells during periods of low blood sugar levels. Skipping meals and bad nutrition can reduce blood sugar. By keeping glucose, the liver ensures that blood sugar levels stay steady between meals and throughout sleep.
When blood sugar falls, cells in the pancreas secrete glucagon. Glucagon advises the liver to convert glycogen to glucose, making glucose more available in the bloodstream. From there, insulin attaches to its receptors on the body’s cells and makes sure that they can soak up glucose.
Insulin and glucagon operate in a cycle. Glucagon interacts with the liver to increase blood glucose, while insulin reduces blood glucose by helping the cells utilize glucose.
The effects of Blood Sugar Level in Body
High blood sugar
The signs of high blood glucose consist of:
- Urinating regularly than normal: The kidneys react to high blood sugar by trying to get rid of excess glucose.
- The extreme thirst that accompanies regular urination: The kidneys can cause dehydration and sensations of intense thirst when attempting to control blood sugar.
- Feeling excessively hungry: High blood sugar level does not directly cause sensations of cravings or hunger. However, a drop in insulin frequently triggers appetite when it accompanies high blood glucose.
Low blood glucose
Delays in between meals, poor nutrition, some diabetes medications, and certain medical conditions can cause low blood glucose.
The symptoms of low blood sugar level include:
- fast heartbeat
- tingling, especially in the tongue, lips, arms, or legs
- hunger along with queasiness
Without treatment, low blood sugar can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness.
Diabetes establishes either when insulin becomes inadequate or when the body cannot produce an adequate of it. The disease triggers issues with blood sugar level regulation.