Angiospermic Family – Family ROSACEAE [19 MCQs]

Angiospermic Family

A family with about 100 genera and 2000 species is dispersed over the majority of the earth. In Pakistan, 29 genera and about 213 species are reported. About 50 genera are found in North America.

Diagnostic characters of Family ROSACEAE

The plants show great variation in habit. The plants may be yearly (Neurada spp.) or perennial prostrate herb, scandent or climbing or erect (Rosa spp.), shrubs, or trees. Cydonia species are bushes. Trees are common and much of them are our popular fruit trees e.g., Prunus amygdalus (H. Badam); Prunus persica (H. Aru); Pyrus communis (H. Nashpati); Pyrus mains (H. Seb), etc.

Vegetative Characters

Plants are trees, shrubs, and herbs. The stem of the shrubby plants normally has spines. Leaves are alternate, rarely opposite, simple or compound, with paired stipules, which are often adnate to the petiole; spines may also occur on the rachis.


Basically, two types of roots are; fibrous taproot, fibrous adventitious roots.


Herbaceous or woody, hard; the stem is covered with thorns (prickles).


Alternate rarely opposite (Rhodotypos), simple or compound often pinnately compound, stipulate, stipule may be minute and caducous (Spiraea, Pyrus), adnate and persistent (Rosa, Rubus), leaf base conspicuous.


Floral Characters

The inflorescence is variable, solitary, or might be a racemose or cymose cluster. Flowers are mostly bisexual, and actinomorphic, typically perigynous to some degree, usually showy and aromatic.


Actinomorphic actually rarely zygomorphic (Chrysobalanoideae), bisexual or rarely unisexual (Spiraea aruncus), pentamerous or tetramerous, hypogynous or epigynous (Pyrus), or perigynous (Rosa); stipules might be represented by epicalyx (Fragaria, Potentilla).


Sepals 5, gamosepalous, adnate to the receptacle; in some cases, epicalyx present; calyx tube remains free or adnate to the ovary, green, imbricate or valvate aestivation.


Petals 5, or multiples of 5, polypetalous, rosaceous, inserted on the receptacle cup otherwise colored; petals completely missing (Poterium, Alchemilla, Pygeumgardneria), or petals may be indefinite (Rosa spp.); sometimes stamens might be changed into petal-like structures; imbricate aestivation in the bud.


Various stamens, often only 5 or 10.


The gynoecium is of 1 to numerous separate carpels or variously unified, ovary usually superior often inferior;

Placentation basal, when the carpel is one or apocarpous, but axile when the carpels are many and syncarpous (merged).

Fruits: Achenes of hair follicles. pome or an etaerio of drupes or drupe.

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Seed: The seed of the rose family is the non-endospermic seed.


Floral Formula:


Economic Importance:

The economic value of this family is great in offering satisfaction and welfare to mankind. The members of this family are important in temperate areas for fruit and ornamentals. Perhaps they rank third in commercial significance in the temperate zone among the families of flowering plants.

  • Important fruits are Apple, Pear, Peach, Almond, Apricot, Strawberry, etc.
  • A large number of plants are ornamental and are grown in gardens for their stunning and fragrant flowers.
  • The most extensively cultivated genus for ornamental purposes is Rosa, Rose which has been grown in gardens since ancient times and whose called cultivars are now numbered in thousands.
  • Numerous other genera are likewise grown for their stunning flowers in the parks and gardens.
  • The branches of Crataegus supply outstanding walking sticks and wood. The wood of Pyrus pastia is utilized for making tobacco pipes.

In Asian countries, the petals of common rose normally called gulabs are utilized in making gulkand, and are also used in the extraction of important oil (rose oil) used as a perfume, when distilled with water the petals give Rose-water or Ark-Gulab, which is used for treating eye illness, and for many other functions.

MCQs with Answers

  1. What is the approximate number of genera and species in the ROSACEAE family?
    • a) 50 genera, 1000 species
    • b) 100 genera, 2000 species
    • c) 75 genera, 1500 species
    • d) 25 genera, 500 species

    Answer: b) 100 genera, 2000 species

  2. How many genera of ROSACEAE are reported in Pakistan?
    • a) 10
    • b) 15
    • c) 20
    • d) 29

    Answer: d) 29

  3. Which of the following is a common habit observed in the ROSACEAE family?
    • a) Annual herb
    • b) Perennial prostrate herb
    • c) Climbing shrub
    • d) All of the above

    Answer: d) All of the above

  4. What is the primary root type in ROSACEAE?
    • a) Adventitious roots
    • b) Taproot
    • c) Fibrous roots
    • d) Contractile roots

    Answer: b) Taproot

  5. In ROSACEAE, what covers the stem of shrubby plants?
    • a) Leaves
    • b) Thorns (prickles)
    • c) Flowers
    • d) Bark

    Answer: b) Thorns (prickles)

  6. Which type of aestivation is commonly observed in the calyx of ROSACEAE flowers?
    • a) Valvate
    • b) Imbricate
    • c) Twisted
    • d) Vexillary

    Answer: b) Imbricate

  7. What is the gynoecium structure in ROSACEAE flowers?
    • a) Monocarpellary
    • b) Syncarpous
    • c) Apocarpous
    • d) Polycarpellary

    Answer: c) Apocarpous

  8. Which family ranks third in commercial significance in the temperate zone among flowering plants?
    • a) Asteraceae
    • b) Rosaceae
    • c) Fabaceae
    • d) Lamiaceae

    Answer: b) Rosaceae

  9. What is the economic value of ROSACEAE in temperate areas?
    • a) Limited
    • b) Moderate
    • c) High
    • d) Negligible

    Answer: c) High

  10. What is the most extensively cultivated genus in ROSACEAE for ornamental purposes?
  • a) Pyrus
  • b) Prunus
  • c) Rosa
  • d) Fragaria
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Answer: c) Rosa

  1. Which of the following is NOT a common habit observed in ROSACEAE?
    • a) Annual herb
    • b) Perennial prostrate herb
    • c) Climbing shrub
    • d) Succulent plant

    Answer: d) Succulent plant

  2. What is the main use of the wood from Crataegus branches in ROSACEAE?
    • a) Construction
    • b) Fuel
    • c) Making walking sticks
    • d) Carving

    Answer: c) Making walking sticks

  3. What type of roots are present in ROSACEAE?
    • a) Contractile roots
    • b) Fibrous adventitious roots
    • c) Aerial roots
    • d) Haustorial roots

    Answer: b) Fibrous adventitious roots

  4. Which part of the ROSACEAE plant is often adnate to the petiole?
    • a) Leaf base
    • b) Stipules
    • c) Rachis
    • d) Lamina

    Answer: b) Stipules

  5. In ROSACEAE, what is the function of the myelin sheath in the nervous tissue?
    • a) Increase nerve impulses speed
    • b) Provide nutrients to neurons
    • c) Store energy
    • d) Protection against pathogens

    Answer: a) Increase nerve impulses speed

  6. What type of symmetry is commonly observed in ROSACEAE flowers?
    • a) Actinomorphic
    • b) Zygomorphic
    • c) Asymmetrical
    • d) Bilateral

    Answer: a) Actinomorphic

  7. Which of the following is a ROSACEAE fruit type?
    • a) Capsule
    • b) Legume
    • c) Achene
    • d) Berry

    Answer: c) Achene

  8. What is the primary function of the petals in ROSACEAE flowers?

    Answer: c) Attraction

  9. Which Asian country commonly uses ROSACEAE petals in making gulkand?
    • a) China
    • b) India
    • c) Japan
    • d) South Korea

    Answer: b) India



The ROSACEAE family, consisting of around 100 genera and 2000 species, is widely distributed across the globe. In Pakistan alone, there are 29 genera and approximately 213 species, with North America boasting about 50 genera. The family exhibits diverse habits, ranging from annual herbs to perennial prostrate herbs, climbing or erect shrubs and trees. Notable species include popular fruit trees like Prunus amygdalus (Almond), Prunus persica (Peach), Pyrus communis (Pear), and Pyrus mains (Seb).

Vegetative characters encompass a variety of plant forms, including trees, shrubs, and herbs. The stem of shrubby plants often features spines, and leaves are typically alternate, simple or compound, with paired stipules that may be adnate to the petiole. The roots may be fibrous taproots or fibrous adventitious roots.

The floral characteristics of ROSACEAE are marked by variable inflorescences, either solitary or arranged in racemose or cymose clusters. Flowers are mostly bisexual, actinomorphic, and often perigynous. The calyx and corolla exhibit characteristics like gamosepalous sepals, polypetalous rosaceous petals, and imbricate aestivation. The androecium consists of various stamens, usually 5 or 10, while the gynoecium ranges from 1 to numerous separate carpels with a usually superior ovary.

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The economic importance of ROSACEAE is significant, particularly in temperate regions, where it ranks third in commercial significance among flowering plant families. Noteworthy fruits like Apple, Pear, Peach, Almond, and Strawberry contribute to human satisfaction and welfare. Additionally, many species are cultivated for ornamental purposes, with the genus Rosa (Rose) being extensively grown for its stunning flowers. The family’s economic value extends to the use of Crataegus branches for walking sticks, Pyrus pastia wood for tobacco pipes, and the extraction of essential oils, such as rose oil, from common rose petals for perfumes and medicinal applications in Asian countries.