Classification System of Carolus Linnaeus


The classification system of Carolus Linnaeus was the artificial system.

Artificial System

The system based on one or two morphological characters for the identification of plants is called an artificial system. This is based on observable characters and does not show affinities among different groups.

The classification system of Carolus Linnaeus was based on floral characteristics. He mainly used characters of stamens of plants. That is why his system is also known as the sexual system.

Scheme of Linnaeus System

He divided the plants into twenty-four classes. He mostly used the characteristics of stamens to differentiate between classes. He also used the condition of perigynous, hypogynous, dynamous, filaments fused or not fused, number of fascicles, anther attachment, and presence of male and female flowers.

These classes are:

  1. Class Monandria: Having single stamen. Example: Canna.
  2. Class Diandria: With three stamens. Example: Salva.
  3. Class Triandria: With three stamens. Example: Poa.
  4. Class Tetrandria: With four stamens. Example: Cuscuta.
  5. Class Pentandria: With five stamens. Example: Daucus.
  6. Class Hexandria: With six stamens. Example: Rumex.
  7. Class Heptandria: With seven stamens. Example: Aesculus
  8. Class Octandria: With eight stamens. Example: Sapindus
  9. Class Enneandria: With nine stamens. Example: Rheum
  10. Class Decandria: With ten stamens. Example: Silene
  11. Class Dodecandria: With twelve to nineteen stamens. Example: Euphorbia
  12. Class Icosandria: They have twenty or more stamens and hypogynous conditions. Example: Cactus
  13. Class Polyandria: They have twenty or more stamens and hypogynous conditions. Example: Ranunculus
  14. Class Didynamia: They have didyanmous stamens. Example: Bignonia
  15. Class Tetradynamia: They have tetradyanmous stamens. Example: Trifolium
  16. Class Monodephia: They have a fused fascicle with one fascicle. Example: Sida
  17. Class Diadelphia: They have a fused fascicle with two fascicles. Example: Polygala
  18. Class Polydephia: Their stamens are fused with several fascicles. Example: Citrus
  19. Class Syngenesia: They have another connate. Example: Viola
  20. Class Gynandria: Their stamens are fused to the pistil. Example: Orchis
  21. Class Monoecia: They have male and female flowers on one plant.Example:  Betula
  22. Class Dioecia: They have male and female flowers on different plants.Example: Najas
  23. Class Polygamia: Their flowers are polygamous. Example: Pogon
  24. ClassCryptogamia: Flowers are absent or non-apparent. Example: Fucus
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Merits of Linnaeus System
  • He was the first to introduce a classification system.
  • Gave some basic knowledge of classification.
  • Widely accepted by taxonomists.
  • Provided reference work.
  • Gave clear-cut concept of species.
Demerits of Linnaeus System
  • He declared his system as artificial or temporary.
  • He grouped some unrelated plants due to similarities in flower structure.
  • He later realized that there should be some natural system of classification.
  • He was a religious person so he opposed the concept of evolution.