The classification system of Carolus Linnaeus was the artificial system.
The system based on one or two morphological characters for the identification of plants is called an artificial system. This is based on observable characters and does not show affinities among different groups.
The classification system of Carolus Linnaeus was based on floral characteristics. He mainly used characters of stamens of plants. That is why his system is also known as the sexual system.
Scheme of Linnaeus System
He divided the plants into twenty-four classes. He mostly used the characteristics of stamens to differentiate between classes. He also used the condition of perigynous, hypogynous, dynamous, filaments fused or not fused, number of fascicles, anther attachment, and presence of male and female flowers.
These classes are:
- Class Monandria: Having single stamen. Example: Canna.
- Class Diandria: With three stamens. Example: Salva.
- Class Triandria: With three stamens. Example: Poa.
- Class Tetrandria: With four stamens. Example: Cuscuta.
- Class Pentandria: With five stamens. Example: Daucus.
- Class Hexandria: With six stamens. Example: Rumex.
- Class Heptandria: With seven stamens. Example: Aesculus
- Class Octandria: With eight stamens. Example: Sapindus
- Class Enneandria: With nine stamens. Example: Rheum
- Class Decandria: With ten stamens. Example: Silene
- Class Dodecandria: With twelve to nineteen stamens. Example: Euphorbia
- Class Icosandria: They have twenty or more stamens and hypogynous conditions. Example: Cactus
- Class Polyandria: They have twenty or more stamens and hypogynous conditions. Example: Ranunculus
- Class Didynamia: They have didyanmous stamens. Example: Bignonia
- Class Tetradynamia: They have tetradyanmous stamens. Example: Trifolium
- Class Monodephia: They have a fused fascicle with one fascicle. Example: Sida
- Class Diadelphia: They have a fused fascicle with two fascicles. Example: Polygala
- Class Polydephia: Their stamens are fused with several fascicles. Example: Citrus
- Class Syngenesia: They have another connate. Example: Viola
- Class Gynandria: Their stamens are fused to the pistil. Example: Orchis
- Class Monoecia: They have male and female flowers on one plant.Example: Betula
- Class Dioecia: They have male and female flowers on different plants.Example: Najas
- Class Polygamia: Their flowers are polygamous. Example: Pogon
- ClassCryptogamia: Flowers are absent or non-apparent. Example: Fucus
Merits of Linnaeus System
- He was the first to introduce a classification system.
- Gave some basic knowledge of classification.
- Widely accepted by taxonomists.
- Provided reference work.
- Gave clear-cut concept of species.
Demerits of Linnaeus System
- He declared his system as artificial or temporary.
- He grouped some unrelated plants due to similarities in flower structure.
- He later realized that there should be some natural system of classification.
- He was a religious person so he opposed the concept of evolution.