Some Common Disorders of the Respiratory System

Overview of topic

Respiratory disorders and diseases are common of all due to the factors like air pollution and contaminants. It affects the majority of people. Some disorders are genetic or by microorganisms but some are caused by pollutants, chemical contaminants, pollens, etc. A disease like asthma is caused by various factors like dust, smoke, pollutants, or pollens and damage the bronchioles. Lung cancer, one of the significant problems today. The major cause of lung cancer is smoking also passive smoking as it contains toxins and carcinogens. Carcinogens can cause abnormal growth of cells leading to deadly tumors. Some diseases are caused by microorganisms like tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium. It is characterized by severe fever and cough and is a contagious disease. Pneumonia also caused by bacteria includes high fever and cough with sputum production. Treatment of respiratory diseases is available in the form of vaccines, inhalers or antibiotics.

There are a number of respiratory disorders that affect people. The portion of such disorders is especially high. It is because of the more concentration of air contaminants not just in the urban but also in the rural atmosphere. Some of the common respiratory conditions are explained next.


Asthma is a serious respiratory disease connected with a severe paroxysm of difficult breathing, usually followed by a period of total relief, with recurrence of attack at more or less frequent periods.

It is an allergic reaction to pollen, spores, cold, humidity, contamination, etc which manifests itself by spasmodic contraction of little bronchiole tubes. Asthma leads to the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamines into the circulatory system that trigger a serious contraction of the bronchiole.


Causing agents:

Allergic reaction triggering aspects are dust, smoke, perfumes, pollens, etc.


The symptoms of asthma differ from person to person. The major symptoms include shortness of breath (especially with effort or during the night), wheezing (whistling sound when breathing out), cough, and chest tightness.

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The chemicals with the capability to dilate the bronchi and bronchioles are used in the treatment of asthma. Such medicine is given in the form of inhalers.

Lung Cancer

Numerous issues in the breathing system can occur if the inside lining is exposed constantly to unhealthy air, containing smoke and other toxins. Lung cancer is one of the most severe illnesses of the respiratory system. Cancer or carcinoma is basically a deadly tumor of potentially limitless development that broadens locally by the intrusion and systemically by metastasis. Cancer can occlude breathing passages as the growth replaces lung tissue.



The primary reasons for any cancer include carcinogens (such as those in cigarette smoke), ionizing radiation, and viral infection.

Smoking the significant cause:

Cigarette smoking is the main reason for lung cancer. This risk of lung cancer is considerably lower in non-cigarette smokers. Cigarette smoke includes over 50 recognized carcinogens. Many people think that lung cancer is the only smoking-related disease and it is the number one cause of death amongst smokers.

But it is not right. Cigarette smoke impacts the body from head to toe. Cigarette smokers have a much greater threat of establishing a variety of life-threatening diseases.


Smoking may likewise result in cancers in the kidneys, mouth, throat, chest, bladder, and pancreas, etc. Lots of chemicals in tobacco smoke damage the air passageway, which leads to emphysema and other respiratory disorders.

Passive smoking (the inhalation of smoke from another’s cigarette smoking) is also a cause of lung cancer. The smoke from the burning end of a cigarette is more harmful than the smoke from the filter end.


The most common symptoms are shortness of breath, coughing (consisting of coughing up blood), and weight loss.


Lung cancer can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation treatment, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments.


Eliminating tobacco smoking cigarettes is the main goal in the avoidance of lung cancer. The World Health Organization has actually called governments to stop tobacco marketing to prevent young people from taking up cigarette smoking.

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Do you know???

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths and is responsible for more than 1.3 million deaths around the world every year.


It is a disorder of the respiratory system. In fact, it is the general name of a group of diseases triggered by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis is an illness of lungs in which within the lung is damaged leading to cough and fever. It is more typical in poor people. Malnutrition and poor living conditions help with Mycobacterium to grow. It is a contagious disease.


The disease is curable with proper medical attention.



Emphysema is a break down of alveoli. This respiratory issue is more typical among cigarette smokers.

The substances present in the smoke of the tobacco damage the wall of alveoli. The irritant substances of smoke generally trigger ” smoker’s cough” and coughing bursts a few of the weakened alveoli. As a result of continuous coughing, the absorbing surface of the lung is greatly minimized. The person suffering from emphysema can not oxygenate his blood appropriately and the least effort makes him breathless and tired.


In patients with emphysema, alveolar walls degenerate and small alveoli integrate to form bigger alveoli. The result is fewer alveoli, however alveoli with an increased volume and reduced surface area. Although the bigger alveoli are still aerated, there is an inadequate area for complete gas exchange, and the physiological dead air space is increased.


The symptoms of emphysema include shortness of breath, fatigue, reoccurring respiratory infections, and weight-loss. By the time the signs of emphysema appear, the patient has normally lost 50% to 70% of his/ her lung tissue. The level of oxygen in blood might get so low that it triggers major issues.


Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. If this infection impacts both lungs then, it is called double pneumonia. When the causative organisms get in the alveoli, they settle there and grow in number. They break the lung tissues and the area ends up being filled with fluid and pus.

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The most common reason for pneumonia is a bacterium, Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Some viral (influenza virus) and fungal infections might likewise lead to pneumonia.


The symptoms of pneumonia include a cold that is followed by a high fever, shivering, and a cough with sputum production. The patient may become short of breath. The patient’s skin color may alter and become dusky or purplish. It is because of poor oxygenation of blood.


Vaccines are readily available to prevent pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae. Antibiotics are utilized in the treatment of this kind of pneumonia.