Oxides of Halogens – Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine

Oxides of Halogens

The halogens do not respond straight with oxygen. With the help of some indirect methods, adhering to oxides of team VIIA components have been made.

Oxides of Fluorine
Trioxygen Difluoride, O3F2

This oxide can be prepared when a mixture of fluorine and oxygen undergoes electric discharge. At 363 ° C, it is a dark red viscous liquid but turns to a reddish brownish solid at 350 °C. On decomposition, it releases oxygen and various other oxides of fluorine.

2 O3 F2à 2 O2 F2 + O2

O3F2 reacts with F2 in the visibility of electrical discharge to generate O2F2

2 O3 F2 + F2à 3 O2 F2

Oxides of Chlorine

The oxides of chlorine are usually unpredictable. It is not possible to manufacture them by direct combination of the components Cl2 and also O2. They have substantial industrial usage as business lightening agents for timber, paper- pulp as well as water treatment.

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Chlorine dioxide, ClO2

It is a light-yellow gas. It is prepared by reducing NaCIO3, with NaCl or SO2 or CH3OH in strongly acidic solution.


CIO2 can additionally be prepared by the reaction of concentration H2SO4 on KCIO3. This reaction is violent. To control the reaction oxalic acid should be included.


CIO2breaks down into Cl2 and O2 on warming. It is soluble in water and is stable in dark. It breaks down gradually in H2O to HCI and HCIO3. It is a paramagnetic compound. It is used as an antibacterial, for the filtration of water and to bleach cellulose material.

Chlorine Heptoxide, CI2O7

CI2O7 is an anhydride of perchloric acid (HCIO4). It can be acquired at -10 ᵒC by dehydration of HCIO4 with P2O5.

2 HCl O4 + P2 O5à Cl2 O7 + 2HPO3

Oxides of Bromine

Oxides of bromine are dark unstable and volatile liquids with reduced thermal stability.

Bromine Monoxide Br2O

It can be prepared by the reaction of bromine vapours with mercuric oxide.

Hg O + 2 Br2à Hg Br2 + Br2 O

Br2O can also be prepared by treating the suspension of mercuric oxide in CCI4 with bromine. It is stable in dark in CCI4 at -20 ° C. It has oxidizing properties.

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Oxides of Iodine

Out of all the oxides of iodine, just iodine pentoxide (I2O5) is very important. The other substances, I2O4 and I2O9 are salt-like and are thought-about as iodine-iodates.

Iodine Pentoxide I2O5

It can be prepared by heating iodic acid at 240 ° C.

2 HIO3à I2 O5 + H2O

It is a white crystalline solid, steady up to 300 ° C. It has a polymeric structure. It is insoluble in organic solvents. It develops iodic acid with water.

I2 O5 + H2Oà 2 HIO3

It reacts with H2S, HCI as well as CO as an oxidizing agent. It is used for the quantitative analysis of CO.

5 CO + I2 O5à I2 + 5 CO2