What is Taxonomy?
Taxonomy is the science of classifying organisms. Taxonomy is the basis for all significant research studies on biodiversity, insect and pest management, medication, bioprospecting, fisheries, quarantine, defense and etc. Taxonomy offers a standard understanding of the parts of biodiversity which is needed for efficient decision-making about preservation and sustainable use.
In short, the taxonomy provides the fundamental foundations of preservation practice and sustainable management of the world’s remaining resources.
The importance of Taxonomy
- Taxonomy intends to classify living creatures.
- Taxonomy helps to ascertain the no. of living species on the earth.
- Taxonomy assists in getting an idea of what types of characters are present.
- Gives a concept of local species.
Classification is essential because it permits researchers to identify, group, and properly name organisms via a standardized system (Linnaeus Taxonomy); based on resemblances found in the organism’s DNA/RNA (genes), Adaptations (Development), and Embryonic development (Embryology) to other known organisms.
Taxonomy in Biodiversity Conservation
Taxonomy usually refers to the theory and practice of describing, calling, and categorizing living things. Such work is necessary for the fundamental understanding of biodiversity and its conservation. Yet the science behind delimiting the natural world into “species” is frequently ignored, misconstrued, and even derided in some quarters.
Most people concerned about biodiversity conservation commonly utilize the term “species” without a clear understanding of what separates one species from another, and why. This is where the science of taxonomy plays an integral role. Species are differentiated from each other in a number of methods.
Although the meaning of species has been the cause of the substantial historic argument, in other words, species are organisms usually acknowledged as morphologically distinct from other groups.
Taxonomy in Biological Control
In biological control, the insect species, its possible area of origin, and, consequently, the area where promising natural enemies may be discovered, are determined. The close co-operation of taxonomists throughout pre-and post-release studies of natural opponents in target areas helps to show the native fauna present and the advancement of a biological control programmed.
Biological control programs should budget for appropriate taxonomic research studies in locations where the local fauna is inadequately known. Advising regional scientists on the proper collection, preservation, and identification of appropriate indigenous and unique species should be emphasized.
Taxonomy to Combat Invasive Alien Species
Taxonomic information is vital for firms and border authorities to find, manage, and control Invasive Alien Species (IAS). Reliable control and management steps can just be carried out when unique species are properly and immediately determined. Misidentifications can cost money when rapid choices need to be taken.
Networking and sharing of experiences, details, and know-how can help in decreasing the costs related to IAS and lower the need for elimination programs with early detection and prevention. When elimination is required, taxonomists can provide proficiency that is central to develop the most efficient yet economic and ecologically benign eradication procedures.
Increased capacity-building (especially for developing countries) is necessary to determine, record, and display intrusions; provide existing and available lists of possible and recognized IAS; determine potential risks to neighboring countries; and to access info on taxonomy, ecology, genes, and control approaches.
It is vital that nearby nations, and all countries along a specific pathway for invasive species, can acknowledge such species and concur on their nomenclature. Baseline taxonomic details on native biota at the nationwide level is likewise important to make sure that IAS can be acknowledged and distinguished from naturally present species.
Taxonomy in Agriculture and Forestry
Recently we have faced an unpleasant problem of conserving our crops and trees from the attack of many different sorts of pests (Locusts). It is extremely important to understand the right category names of such insects prior to their proper control.
Every species has its own different niche in nature and varies from its associated types in food partiality, mating seasons, tolerance or resistance capability to numerous stimuli, predators, rivals, pathogens, and so on and all these are extremely crucial for an applied worker before applying control procedures.
All this crucial information can be quickly obtained by group screening of the insect, if the identity of the insect is sometimes known, it is also really helpful to have a regional observation of the process of triggering so much damage of the crop on getting proper identification of the insect species, it ends up being simpler to collect details about its practices which is essential for its effective control.
Taxonomy in Wildlife Management
The primary role of a taxonomist is the organization of classes of living organisms, about which scientifically helpful indicative generalizations can be made. The primary function is to distinguish the different sorts of organisms and by explaining their characteristics through descriptions, keys, figures, and so on. Should need to provide names for each individual organism, so that the info can be recorded, saved, and reclaim when needed.
To make a set of principles based on the option and importance of characters with the ultimate objective of organizing species in the hierarchy of greater categories.
Estimate genetic and phylogenetic relationships amongst organisms.
Taxonomy in Public Health
Taxonomy plays a fantastic function in public health management. There are a variety of different kinds of diseases that are spread by many arthropods, bugs which are disease-specific. So, we must prepare the control strategy in such a way that only the target species is assaulted. This is only possible if we get the correct identification of that species. For example, some species of anopheles mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting malaria however the other species not.
Ticks are vectors of nematodes, protozoa, rickettsia, spirochetes, other bacteria, and infection that cause diseases in human beings and other animals.
Taxonomy plays a crucial role in the recognition of these interactions. The control system then used just on the target species and in this a method of cash and workforce were conserved and the loss can be stopped. This right recognition guarantees an optimum of efficient control at minimum expense.
In a broad sense, taxonomy is the classification of organisms but more precisely the living and extinct organisms. The term is derived from the Greek word ‘taxis’ meaning ‘arrangement’ and ‘nomos’ means ‘law’.
Therefore, taxonomy is the methodology and set of principles of systematic zoology and botany for the classification or arrangement of plants and animals in hierarchies of superior and subordinate groups.
For classification and giving organisms the scientific names, the Linnaean system by Carolus Linnaeus is internationally accepted.