Physical and Chemical Factors affecting Fish Cultures


Physical and chemical criteria of water play a substantial role in the biology and physiology of fish. Water quality figures out not only exactly how well fish will certainly expand in a tank farming procedure, but whether they survive.

Fish impact water quality with procedures like nitrogen metabolic process and respiration. Water quality is essential in the drinking water system, irrigation, fish production, recreation, and various other purposes to which the water has to be impounded.

The changes in physical characteristics like temperature level, transparency, light penetration and chemical aspects of water such as dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen required, nitrate as well as phosphate offer valuable details on the quality of the water, the resource of the variants, and their influence on the features as well as the biodiversity of a pond or dish culture.

Water Depth

Water Depth figures out the temperature level, flow pattern of water, and the extent of photosynthetic activity.

In shallow fish ponds, light permeates up to the fish pond base and also assists in a rise in productivity. A deepness of 1-2 meters is taken into consideration optimal for the organic performance of a pond. If the depth is very much less, water obtains overheated as well as therefore has a damaging effect on the survival of the fish.

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In dry and semi-arid areas, water depth needs to be more than 2 meters. The excess water from the pond can be gotten rid of with pumping or through the use of an electrical outlet in the embankment. If the water depth is decreased then from a close-by source it should be filled.

Water Temperature

Fish are generally categorized into warm water, cool water, as well as coldwater species based on optimal growth temperatures.

Warmwater species

Channel catfish, as well as tilapia, are examples of warm water species. Their temperature varies for growth is in between 75 – 90ᵒF. A temperature of 85ᵒF for catfish as well as 87ᵒF for tilapia is taken into consideration as optimum.

Cool Water species

Walleye, as well as yellow perch, are instances of cool-water species. The extent for optimum growth lies between 60ᵒ F as well as 85ᵒF. Temperatures in the top end of this range are considered ideal for optimum growth for the majority of cool-water species.

Coldwater species

Coldwater species include all species of salmon and trout. The most generally cultured Coldwater species in the Midwest is rainbow trout, whose optimum temperature for growth is 48-65ᵒF.


Turbidity is a problem of water arising from the existence of suspended matter and particles. Considering that there are suspended matter in all natural waters all are ‘turbid’; only the degree of turbidity is various.

Turbidity generating compounds might be divided into

  1. Settling suspended matters
  2. Non-settling suspended matters
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Settling suspended matters

Settling suspended matters are those materials that in still water would sooner or later settle. This negotiation time relates vice versa to the diameter of the particle. Turbidity as a result of profusion of plankton is a sign of high fertility of a fish pond, but that caused by silt or mud is unsafe to fish and fish food organisms for they (silt) effectively decrease photosynthetic activity, and nutrients are lost by adsorption to suspended bits.

Light Penetration

Of the total light falling on water, a portion is reflected, which depends upon the roughness of the water surface as well as the angle of the radiation. The smoother the surface and closer the angle of radiation to the vertical the higher is the radiation penetrating the surface area.

The spectral quality and strength of light change as it goes into deeper waters. In distilled water, 53% of incident light is shed as heat (quenching – light extinction) within the very first meter of water. Light infiltration is even more decreased by impurities in water.