Kidney Diseases and Cures

What are kidney diseases?

Kidney disease can affect your body’s ability to clean your blood, filter extra water out of your blood, and help regulate your high blood pressure. It can likewise impact red blood cell production and vitamin D metabolism required for bone health.

When your kidneys are damaged, waste products and fluid can develop in your body. That can trigger swelling in your ankles, queasiness, weakness, bad sleep, and shortness of breath. Without treatment, the damage can worsen and your kidneys may eventually quit working. That is serious, and it can be life-threatening.

Unusual scenarios might emerge in the function of the kidney by factors coming from within the kidney or external. These trigger severe kidney diseases.

Kidney Stones


Stony products are found in the kidney and these cause urinary blockage and are generally made complex by infections. These stones have a specified chemical nature. These are formed in metabolic diseases, hypercalcemia i.e., high level of flowing calcium in blood because of other diseases. Hyperoxaluria i.e., the greater blood level of oxalates is another contributing consider the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Oxalates are present in green vegetables and tomatoes for that reason may be the source of hyperoxaluria.

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The occurrence of calcium oxalate type stones is 70% of all the kidney stones. The occurrence of other types of stones of calcium phosphate and uric acid is 15% and 10% respectively. These salts are precipitated out throughout urine formation and collect later on to form a stone.



The kidney stones have been removed by kidney surgical treatment. Currently, lithotripsy is used for the non-surgical elimination of kidney stones. It is the strategy utilized to separate stones that form in the kidney, ureter, or gall bladder.

There are several ways to do it, although the most common is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. High concentrations of X-ray or ultrasound are directed from a machine outside the body to the stone inside. The shock waves break the stone into tiny pieces or into the sand, which is passed out of the body in urine.

Kidney Failure

Numerous elements of pathological and chemical nature might progressively damage the nephron, particularly its glomerular part. This results in an increase in the plasma level of urea and other nitrogenous wastes. The increase in urea triggers issues of increase in blood pressure and anemia etc.


In persistent kidney failure, the function of the kidney is entirely lost and is not able to remove nitrogenous waste. To get rid of nitrogenous waste, particularly the urea, the blood of the patient is dealt with with dialysis. It cleans the blood either by passing it through an artificial kidney or by filtering it within the abdomen. The wastes and excess water are removed during the treatment as is done by the healthy kidneys.

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There are two kinds of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.


Hemodialysis means ‘cleaning up the blood’. In this treatment, blood is circulated through a machine which includes a dialyzer likewise called an artificial kidney. The dialyzer has actually two spaces separated by a thin membrane. Blood passes from one side of the membrane and dialysis fluid on the other. The wastes and excess water pass from the blood through the membrane into the dialysis fluid by the process of diffusion.


Peritoneal dialysis


Peritoneal dialysis work on the very same concept other than that abdomen has a peritoneal cavity, lined by a thin epithelium called the peritoneum. The peritoneal cavity is filled with dialysis fluid that goes into the body through a catheter. Excess water and wastes pass through the peritoneum into the dialysis fluid. This procedure is repeated numerous times a day. The dialyzer is a kidney maker that deals with the same principle as in a kidney for the removal of nitrogenous wastes and excess water from the blood.

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It is used after kidney failure and dialysis is done again and again until a matching donor’s kidney is transplanted.

Kidney Transplant

Dialysis might be used as a momentary step. In high degree kidney failure also called uremia or end-stage renal failure, the dialysis cannot be done for this reason thus the surgical transplantation of a matching donor kidney is the only alternative left for permanent treatment.

Multiple Choice Questions

The kind of kidney that is adapted to conserve 99.5% of water

  1. Mammalian
  2. Human
  3. Metanephric
  4. All the above

Answer: D

The percentage of stones in the kidney due to calcium carbonate:

  1. 0%
  2. 10%
  3. 15%
  4. 70%

Answer: A

Which dialysis is needed to be repeated more frequently?

  1. Hemodialysis
  2. Peritoneal dialysis
  3. Artificial dialysis
  4. Both a and b

Answer: B

Which procedure is used for non-surgical removal of kidney stones:

  1. Chemotherapy
  2. Radiotherapy
  3. Lithotripsy
  4. Dialysis

Answer: C

Human kidney is

  1. Pronephros
  2. Mesonephros
  3. Metanephros
  4. None of them

Answer: C