- 1) Solving a Biological Problem
- 2) Biological Method
- 3) The biological problem, hypothesis, deductions, and experiments
- 4) 1.Recognition of the Biological Issue
- 5) 2.Observations
- 6) 3.Formulation of Hypotheses
- 7) 4.Deductions
- 8) Other ways of Hypothesis
- 9) 5.Experimentation
- 10) 6.Summarization of Results
- 11) 7.Reporting the Results
- 12) Theory, law, and principle
- 13) You may also like to learn:
Solving a Biological Problem
Science is the systemized knowledge stemmed from observations and experiments. These experiments are carried out to figure out the principles of how nature operates. Scientists like chemists, biologists, and physicists utilize the same biological method to make and evaluate new theories.
Questions about living things have offered issues that people have actually examined to assist his own survival and to satisfy his desire to know. The scientific technique in which biological issues are resolved is termed as a biological approach. It makes up the steps a biologist adopts in order to solve a biological problem. The biological technique has actually played a vital part in a scientific research study for nearly 500 years.
From Galileo’s experiment (in the 1590s) to the current research study, the biological method has actually contributed to the improvements in medication, ecology, technology, and so on. The biological method likewise guarantees the quality of data for public usage.
The biological problem, hypothesis, deductions, and experiments
In biology (like other sciences), new things are being discovered and long-held theories are being modified or replaced with much better ones as more data/knowledge is accumulated. This occurs when biologists acknowledge some biological problem and go for its solution. In resolving a biological problem, biologist takes the following actions;
- Recognition of the biological issue
- Hypothesis formulation
- Summarization of results (create tables, graphics, etc.)
- Reporting the results
1.Recognition of the Biological Issue
Biologists go for adopting a biological approach when they encounter some biological problem. A biological problem is a concern related to living organisms that are either asked by someone or can be found in a biologist’s mind by himself.
As the initial step in solving a biological problem, the biologist recalls his/her previous observations or makes new ones. Observations are made with five senses of vision, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Observations might be both qualitative and quantitative.
Quantitative observations are thought about as more precise than qualitative ones because the previous is invariable and measurable and can be recorded in regards to numbers.
For example:Qualitative: A liter of water is much heavier than a liter of ethanol.
Quantitative: A liter of water weighs 1000 grams and a liter of ethanol weighs 789 grams.
Observations likewise consist of reading and studying what others have carried out in the past because scientific knowledge is ever-growing.
3.Formulation of Hypotheses
Observations do not become biological observations up until they are arranged and connected to a question. Biologist arranges his/her and others’ observations into data form and constructs a declaration that may prove to be the answer to the biological problem under study. This tentative explanation of observations is called a hypothesis. It might be defined as a proposal that might be real. A hypothesis must have the following attributes:
- It needs to be a general statement.
- It should be a tentative concept.
- It must agree with readily available observations.
- It needs to be kept as easy as possible.
- It ought to be testable and possibly falsifiable. Simply put, there needs to be a way to show the hypothesis is false; a method to negate the hypothesis.
A lot of careful and creative thinking is required for the solution of a hypothesis. Biologists use reasoning to formulate a hypothesis.
In the next step, biologist draws deductions from hypotheses. Deductions are the logical consequences of hypotheses. There are 2 methods of creating a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be the result of deductive reasoning or it can be the result of inductive reasoning.
Deductive reasoning moves from the general to the specific. It includes drawing specific conclusions from some basic principles/assumptions. Deductive reasoning of “if… then” is regularly used to frame testable hypotheses. For instance, if we accept that all birds have wings (premise # 1) and that sparrows are birds (premise # 2), then we conclude that sparrows have wings. If all green plants need sunlight for photosynthesis, then any green plant when placed in the dark would not synthesize glucose, the end product of photosynthesis.
The other method of reasoning used in the formulation of the hypothesis is inductive reasoning which is reasoning from the specific to the general. It begins with specific observations and induces the formation of the basic concept. For instance, if we know that sparrows have wings and are birds, and we know that eagle, parrot, hawk, crow are birds, then we induce (draw conclusion) that all birds have wings. The science likewise, therefore, utilizes inductive reasoning to generalize from specific occasions.
Other ways of Hypothesis
In fact, sometimes researchers also use other ways to form a hypothesis, which may include (1) instinct or imagination (2) esthetic preference (3) religious or philosophical ideas (4) comparison and analogy with other processes (5) discovery of one thing while looking for some other thing. These ways can likewise often form the basis for a scientific hypothesis.
The most standard step of the biological method is experimentation. Biologist carries out experiments to see if hypotheses are true or not. The deductions, which are drawn from hypotheses, go through strenuous testing. Through experimentations, biologist learns which hypothesis is correct. The incorrect hypotheses are declined and the one which proves right is accepted. An accepted hypothesis makes further predictions that offer an essential way to further test its validity.
6.Summarization of Results
Biologist collects actual, quantitative data from experiments. Information for each of the groups is then balanced and compared statistically. To draw conclusions, biologist likewise uses analytical analysis.
7.Reporting the Results
Biologists release their findings in scientific journals and books, in talks at national and international meetings, and in seminars at institutions of higher learnings. Publishing results is an important part of the biological method. It allows other people to confirm the results or use the knowledge to solve other problems.
Theory, law, and principle
When a hypothesis is given a repetitive direct exposure to experimentation and is not falsified, it increases biologists’ confidence in the hypothesis. Such a well-supported hypothesis might be utilized as the basis for creating more hypotheses which are again shown by speculative results.
The hypotheses that stand the test of time (typically tested and never rejected), are called theories. A theory is supported by a great deal of evidence.
The productive theory continues recommending new hypotheses and so testing goes on. Numerous biologists take it as a challenge and put in higher efforts to disprove the theory.
Law and principle
If a theory makes it through such a doubtful approach and continues to be supported by speculative evidence, it becomes a law or principle. A scientific law is a consistent or constant truth of nature. It is an undeniable theory.
Examples of biological laws are Hardy-Weinberg law and Mendel’s laws of inheritance.